Our cells need to communicate to take immediate actions in response to the different biologic changes or events. These communications take place either within the same tissue or between different tissues through a built-in molecules installed on the cell surface membranes to act like Antenna. These are the Glycoproteins.
Glycoproteins are formed when a protein molecule attaches oligosaccharide ( multi-sugar) chains to its backbone. Were it a polypeptide chain, it would have been non-enzymically highly reactive leading to uncontrolled biochemical activity which aborts life order.
Almost all the plasma proteins of humans except albumin are Glycoproteins. A number of the blood groups substance are Glycoproteins. Many proteins of cellular membranes contain substantial amounts of carbohydrates. Many cancer researchers think that alterations in the structure of Glycoproteins on the surface of cancer cells are responsible, at least in part, for the phenomenon of metastasis (whereby cancer cells leave their tissue of origin, migrate through the blood stream to some distant site in the body and grow there in a completely unregulated manner with catastrophic results on the affected idividual e.g. from breast to brain.).
Glycoproteins occur in most organisms from bacteria to humans. Many viruses also contain glycoproteins. Techniques are available for detection, purification, and structural analysis of glycoproteins.
The carbohydrate content of glycoproteins ranges from 1% to 85% by weight. Number of hexoses (6 carbon sugars), their type, their sequence and their conformation render the oligosaccharide (multi-sugar) chains encode considerble biologic information.
Some functions of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins:
# molecular physico-chemical properties e.g. solubilty, viscosity, charge and denaturation.
# Protect against proteolysis ( protein enzymatic degradation, from inside and outside the cell).
# Are involved in biologic activity, e.g. of chorionic gonadotropin(hCG).
# Affects insertion into membranes, intracllular migration, sorting, and secretion.
# Affects embryonic development and differentiation.
# May affect sites of metastasis selected by cancer cells.
The principal seven sugar predominant in human glycoproteins are:
Galactose - Mnnose - Glucose - Fucose( not to be confused with Fructose) -
N-Acetyl Neuraminic acid - N-Acetyl Galactosamine - N-Acetyl Glucosamine.
Xylose is now added and they become 8 sugars. These sugars are called The 8 Essential Sugars.
Any nutrient described to be "essntial" means that it should be provided in the diet, as the body may not be capable of producing them totally or partially to meet the body needs.
Our catering sponsor ( plants) put the essential sugars together with Glucose which is essential to life itself, in attractive appetizing forms ( vegetables & frits), so that when humans eat them they get their "quota" of these important nutrients. There are still arguements that the body can convert Glucose to these sugars, and although it can, yet the most recent study revealed that only moderate to severe arthritis cases positively responded to treatment with
N- AcetylGlucosamine, which means the the body couldn't synthesize this sugar amount administered during the period of the trial.
The following are the rich sources of Essential Sugars:
Dietary sources of Mannose
Herbs : Aloe vera
Fruits: Black currants - Goosberries
Vegetables: Beans(green) - Capsicum - Cabbage - Eggplant - Tomatoes- Turnip.
Dietary sources of Galactose
*Fruits : Apples - Appricot- Banana - Blackberries- Cherries - Cranberries - Currants- Dates Kiwi fruit- Mango- Nectarines- Orange Peach - Pears - Pinapple - Plums - Prunes- Raspberries - Rhubarb- Strawberries- Passion fruit
*Herbs: Echinacea - Boswellia
*Nuts : Chestnut
*Vegetables : Broccoli- Brussels sprouts - Cabbage - Carrot - Cauliflour - Celery - Cucumber Eggplant - Tomatoes - Leeks - Lettuce - Mushrooms- Onions - Parsnip - Peas( green) - Pumpkin - Spinach- Beans (green) - Beet root.
Dietary sources of Fucose
Fucoidan containing plants including several species seaweeds such as Kelp and Wakame,
Dietary sources of N-AcetylNeuraminic acid ( Sialic acid)
Whey protein isolate - Hens Eggs
Dietary sources of N-AcetylGlucosamine
Bovine cartilage - Shark cartilage - Dumontiacea ( a red algae)
Dietary sources of Xylose
*Fruits: Guava - pears - Blackberries - RaspberriesHerbs : Aloe vera - Echinacea - Boswellia *Seeds : psyllium seeds
*Vegetables: Broccoli - Beans(green) - Cabbage - Corn - Eggplant